List Of High Courts In India

List Of High Courts In India

The High Courts are essential to India’s robust and well-organized legal system. This piece discusses the Indian High Courts, their role in upholding the rule of law, their jurisdiction, and their powers. Anyone interested in the country’s legal system, whether a law student, a lawyer, or just someone who likes reading, should read this.

Indian high courts are second in importance after the Supreme Court of India. They are the top courts at the state level. Their job is to ensure that fundamental rights are protected and justice is done. This article breaks down the background, structure, and essential role of the High Courts in Indian politics in great detail.

Read more: List of National Parks in India

What Are High Courts and Why Are They Important?

In India, the high courts are the top courts at the state level. They connect the lower courts to the Supreme Court of India and are in charge of reviewing and making decisions about lower courts in their states or union territories. The high courts can also issue writs to protect fundamental rights and check whether actions taken by the state government and its agents are legal.

A Brief History of High Courts in India

In the colonial era, the Calcutta High Court was founded in 1862 during the British Raj. This is where India’s high courts got their start. The Bombay Court and the Madras High Court were also created in the same year. As time went on, districts were reorganized, new states were made, and more high courts were set up to meet the needs of the different areas.

What Are the Key Functions of High Courts?

High courts in India perform several crucial functions within their respective jurisdictions:

  1. Appellate Jurisdiction: The decisions and orders of lower courts, such as district courts and tribunals, can be challenged in the high courts.
  2. Writ Jurisdiction: High Courts can issue writs, such as habeas corpus, mandamus, certiorari, quo warranto, and prohibition, to protect people’s fundamental rights and ensure that government activities are legal.
  3. Supervisory Jurisdiction: High courts oversee all lower courts within their area, ensuring they follow the law and continue to work correctly.
  4. Judicial Review: High courts can check whether laws made by the state assembly are constitutional and throw out unconstitutional laws.
  5. Advisory Jurisdiction: If the Governor or Lieutenant Governor wants legal advice, they can ask the high courts to give it.

List of 25 High Courts in India

As of 2024, 25 high courts are in India, each serving a specific state or a group of states. These Courts are placed carefully across the country to ensure justice is done quickly and easily. Let us look more closely at the names and places of these prestigious schools:

  1. Allahabad High Court
  2. Andhra Pradesh High Court
  3. Bombay High Court
  4. Calcutta High Court
  5. Chhattisgarh High Court
  6. Delhi High Court
  7. Gauhati High Court
  8. Gujarat High Court
  9. Himachal Pradesh High Court
  10. Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh High Court
  11. Jharkhand High Court
  12. Karnataka High Court
  13. Kerala High Court
  14. Madhya Pradesh High Court
  15. Madras High Court
  16. Manipur High Court
  17. Meghalaya High Court
  18. Orissa High Court
  19. Patna High Court
  20. Punjab and Haryana High Court
  21. Rajasthan High Court
  22. Sikkim High Court
  23. Telangana High Court
  24. Tripura High Court
  25. Uttarakhand High Court

Each High Court has its jurisdiction and plays a significant role in delivering justice and upholding the rule of law in their respective regions.

Jurisdictional Boundaries: Understanding the Reach of High Courts 

India’s High Courts have clear powers, making the country’s court system well-organized and effective. Every High Court has a clear area of responsibility, usually the same as the state or union region it oversees.

For example, the Delhi High Court rules the National Capital Territory. The Bombay Court, on the other hand, has power over the Union Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and the states of Maharashtra and Goa. The Kolkata High Court oversees West Bengal, and the Madras High Court oversees Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry.

A single High Court may sometimes have power over more than one state or union territory. One example is the Punjab and Haryana High Court, which controls Punjab, Chandigarh, and Haryana. Another is the Gauhati High Court, which has power over Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh.

High Court Structure and Hierarchy

Each Indian high court is set up and organized so that processes run smoothly and quickly. The President of India chooses the Chief Justice, the head of a high court, who runs and oversees the whole court.

Under the Chief Justice are the puisne judges. The President also chooses these judges based on suggestions from the Chief Justice of India and the Supreme Court Collegium. The number of judges in a high court changes based on how busy the court is and what it is supposed to do.

High courts have administrative control over lesser courts, such as district courts, session courts, and other lower courts. As part of this control, judges can make rules and guidelines, move cases, and punish judges.

Notable High Courts in India

There are 25 high courts in India, but some stand out because of their history, fame, or critical decisions. Here are a few examples that stand out:

Calcutta High Court

The Kolkata High Court is the oldest high court in India. It was founded in 1862 and has significantly impacted the country’s law system. It rules over the islands of Andaman and Nicobar and the state of West Bengal.

Bombay High Court

The Mumbai High Court, founded in 1862, is one of India’s oldest and most important high courts. It has power over the states of Maharashtra and Goa and the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

Delhi High Court

It is important to note that the Delhi High Court has authority over the National Capital Territory of Delhi and has made important decisions about many areas of law, such as constitutional rights and civil freedoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

How are judges appointed to the High Courts?

The President of India appoints the judges for the High Courts. As part of the selection process, the Governor of each state, the Chief Justice of India, and the Chief Justice of the High Court are all consulted. This ensures that the judges for the High Courts are chosen fairly and openly.

What is the tenure of High Court judges?

The Indian Constitution states how long High Court judges can serve. At first, they had to be 60 years old to retire. The age was raised to 62 in 1963 when the Constitution was changed. Other ways for Court judges to leave their jobs are to resign, be chosen as Supreme Court judges, or be moved to another High Court.

How can one appeal a High Court’s decision?

People can appeal a high court order to the Supreme Court of India, the country’s top court. The Supreme Court can review and overturn decisions made by the High Courts. You may also be able to appeal a High Court ruling to a District Court in the same area as the High Court.

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